Saturday, August 31, 2019

Harlem by Langston Hughes Essay

Harlem has skillfully summed up the pathos and miseries of Afro-American life and its reason for socio-cultural strife in the American society and history in few lines. It contains the two essential element of any great piece of literature i.e. brevity and comprehensiveness. Langston Hughes takes into account the social impact of deferred dream and provides a clear allusion that these deferred dreams went off in the form of social unrest and increased hatred between Black and White communities in the fifties and sixties. Langston skillfully uses the symbols of decadence to epitomize the putrefying society and then suddenly questions about the ultimate outcome. On a broader level, this poem also refers to ‘American Dream’ that aimed at the attainment of material gains only. This social goal neglected the social equity and turned American society into a wasteland.   So true dreams got deferred and exploded in the form of civil rights movement and social-political conflicts of 1960s. He uses powerful imagery to emphasize the magnitude of decadence that deferred dreams bring with the passage of time. For example ‘raisin’ denotes a darkened grape that remains constantly exposed to sun. So a deferred dreams feeds on the pathetic beams of social miseries and turns soar. Although on the surface level the net effect seems negative but one must keep in mind that raisin is savory too. So his revolutionary vision was based on a peaceful and progressive world.   Langston weaved dreams not only for the common Afro-American folk but also for poets of future generations. This dream-maker influenced the future poets to create work based in their own roots and values. So his â€Å"dream deferred† did not â€Å"dry up like a raisin in the sun† or â€Å"fester like a sore† but â€Å"it explode[d]† in a positive by influencing his reader and future writers alike.

Friday, August 30, 2019

An Introduction to the Im Profession and Ethics Paper

De La Salle University – Manila An Introduction to the IM Profession and Ethics Paper Presented to The Faculty of the College of Computer Studies De La University – Manila In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science of Information Systems By: Changcoco, Amos Dimla, Ysabel Nicole Ramchand, Pavan Tanchuling, Bianca Denise Tibayan, Jan Michael 1. 0 COMPUTER AND INTERNET CRIME 1. 1 Types of Exploits 1. 1. 1Virus It is a malicious code that is attached to a file or executable program that can hack the files of the victim’s computer and reformat, delete or modify the files.The virus is executed only when the file that contains the virus is opened or if the program with the virus is executed as well. It leaves infections as it travels from one computer to another. The spread of the virus relies on the users whenever users would use removable media devices, download or through e-mails. An example of a computer virus would be the Pikac hu virus which was the first computer virus directed to children. It was said that the virus started on June 28, 2000 from Asia or the Pacific Ocean region.The virus was an email titled, â€Å"Pikachu Pokemon† with the message, â€Å"Pikachu is your friend. † The email contained the image of the cartoon character, ‘Pikachu’ from the TV series Pokemon, with the message, â€Å"Between millions of people around the world I found you. Don’t forget to remember this day every time MY FRIEND. † The Pikachu virus infected only a few companies in the United States through Microsoft Outlook email attachments or through Microsoft’s Internet Explorer browser.The reason why only a few companies were harmed and why the virus was not as viral is that the virus was not coded properly and would ask the user if the virus can delete the files in the user. 1. 1. 2Worm A worm is a malicious code that is used for bringing down the computer system. A worm do es not infect files, however, it monopolies the computer’s CPU and operating system and is capable of deleting data and programs. It infects a computer by finding vulnerability in an application or operating system. A worm is self-replicating and uses a network to replicate itself to other computer.It does not rely on human interaction for spreading to other computers. An example would be the Morris Worm or also known as the Great Worm. Created by a Cornell University student named Robert Tappan Morris in the year 1968, the Morris Worm consisted of 99 lines of code. Robert Morris wanted to know how big the Internet was and made the worm to find the answer. It is noted that the creator did not have malicious intent in making this worm; however, the worm infected immense amounts of stability problems that made many systems unusable.The damage was over 6,000 infected UNIX machines which cost between $10,000,000 and $100,000,000. This example is an ethical dilemma because the cre ator did not have evil intentions in making the worm but did have bad effects on most people in America. This dilemma would be ethical based on the psychological egoism theory because Robert Morris acted on his selfish motive whether he should or not, which made him moral. Based on the hedonism theory, it was ethical of Morris because he was only doing his duty without knowing that his actions would bring upon negative effects. 1. 1. 3Trojan HorseNamed after the Trojan horse from Troy which was used to infiltrate the enemy’s territory through a disguise, the Trojan horse is disguised as something else (such as a program or file) but is actually a malicious code or may contain malicious code. Similar to viruses, a Trojan horse is executed when the file with the virus is opened or the program with the malicious code is executed also. A Trojan horse can do from light damages such as changing the desktop and the like, to threatening damage, such as deleting files, stealing data, or activating and spreading other malware, to the victim’s software.Trojan horses are also used to create a ‘back door’ in the operating system so that the hackers can access the system. However, the Trojan horse cannot duplicate itself nor it can self-replicate. It would need the user to spread to other computers. An example of a Trojan horse would be from the pirated version of Apple’s suite of software, iWork. iServices was the Trojan horse part of the pirated version of iWork, which would signal the hackers that the Mac is infected and the hacker has access to the system.This is an ethical dilemma because the people who buy pirated software such as the iWork do not know that there is a Trojan horse in the software. It was unethical of the sellers to place a Trojan horse in the software without the consent of their customers’ because deontology theory states that it was not the duty of the vendors to hack into the systems of their customers in th e first place. Another reason why it was unethical because of the theory of altruism because the interest of others was not thought about since many people will suffer due to the actions of the vendors.This is another reason why it is unethical, because of the utilitarianism, which is consequences-based. Lastly, the social contract theory states that the actions of the vendors were unethical because it is against the law to hack and infiltrate private property. Logic bomb is a type of Trojan horse that is triggered only by a series of specific events such as a specific sequence of keystrokes or a change in a file. 1. 1. 4Botnets A botnet is a network of infected computers that are controlled by bots.Named after the word ‘robot’, a bot is a type of malware that allows an attacker to take control of an affected computer. Criminal can take over the controlled computer such as sending out spam, spread viruses, attack computer and can even cause crime and fraud, without the owner knowing it. Bots are also called computer zombie because the computer has no control over its actions since hackers are in charge of its actions. 1. 1. 5Distributed Denial-Of-Service Attacks (DDoS Attacks) A Distributed Denial-of-Service Attack is when a malicious hacker controls computers through the Internet.It is an attempt in preventing the computer owner to use network resource or machine. It is composed of one or more people trying to disenable a certain host from being connected to the Internet. 1. 1. 6Rootkits The name rootkit comes from the two words ‘root’, which pertains to the point it attacks, which would be the administrator or the source or the root, and ‘kit’ because of the set of programs. A rootkit is a set of programs that enables its user to gain administrator level access to a computer without the user’s consent or knowledge.The owner of the rootkit is capable of executing files and changing system configurations on the tar get machine, as well as accessing log files or monitoring activity to covertly spy on the user's computer usage. It is hard to detect if a computer system has a rootkit malware. 1. 1. 7Spam E-mail spam is when e-mail systems send unsolicited e-mail to large numbers of people. Spam mostly comes off as cheap advertisements of strange products such as pornography, ‘get-rich-quick’ schemes and the like. Spam can also be used to deliver harmful worms or other malware. . 1. 8Phishing Phishing is an attempt to steal personal identity data by tricking users into entering information on a counterfeit Web site. 1. 2Types of Perpetrators 1. 2. 1Hackers and Crackers Hackers are people who test the limits of the system, find the â€Å"holes†, and check which data they could access. The knowledge that they get is actually obtainable in various media, usually the internet. They are not usually considered bad; but due to many of them who used such knowledge to cause harm to syst ems, the term became negative.A more appropriate term for these kinds of people is actually called crackers. 1. 2. 2 Malicious Insiders Malicious insiders are people who obtain goods, services, or property through deception or trickery, also known as fraud. In other words they lie to gain. 1. 2. 3 Industrial Spies Industrial spies are people who illegally obtain information from competitors for the benefit of their sponsor. The act is called industrial espionage and the opposite which is to obtain information legally is called competitive intelligence.In 1993, Opel accused the rival Volkswagen of industrial espionage after the former’s chief of production and seven executives moved to the latter company due to missing documents. (Julian, 2011) 1. 2. 4 Cybercriminals These perpetrators hack to the company’s system and will do anything with the information just to gain money. One of the most famous hackers of the world is Albert Gonzalez, who used hacking to steal and re sell millions of card and ATM numbers in a span of three years. He did this by attacking many systems which would eventually give him the information needed to steal the card numbers. Verini, 2010) Albert Gonzalez is in ethical dilemma because he used his skills to steal the information for money. Based on the deontological theory, it’s unethical because it is not the duty of hackers to steal information. Based on hedonism under the utilitarian theory, it is ethical because he found pleasure from the act. Social contract theory, however, makes this act unethical, and so does virtue theory. 1. 2. 5 Hacktivists and Cyberterrorists Hacktivists, combining the words â€Å"hacking† and â€Å"activist†, are people who hack to promote political ideology.Cyberterrorists attack to get the attention of the government as part of their political objectives. Anonymous is one of the most famous hacktivist groups due to their appearance on various media in which members appear wearing the Guy Fawkes mask. Their advocacy is to oppose the Internet censorship and surveillance, government corruption and homophobia. This is why they attacked several government sites. (Katich, 2013) The ethical dilemma the group faces is that they use hacking skills to infiltrate the systems yet they belong to the side of the people as their objective is to make the government hear their voice.This is ethical based on deontology because it is their duty to make the government listen to them their voice. This is also ethical based on the altruistic approach as more will benefit from their act. However, social contract theory states that it is unethical since this act has violated the law. 1. 3Laws for Prosecuting Computer Attacks 1. 3. 1Electronic Commerce Act of 2000 (RA 8792) 1. 3. 1. 1E-Commerce in Society The process of buying and selling goods electronically by consumers and from company to company through computerized business transactions.This act has the purpose of prote cting those who pursue business in electronic means through multiple communication networks through the Internet. 1. 3. 1. 2 Elements in the Law Electronic data messages – these are generally the information that is in every transaction of the business. Electronic document – these are the type of information specified with text, symbols, or other modes of written expression yet similar in nature with the electronic data messages. Electronic Signature – these are any distinctive marks that approve a transaction which are done by a person or an entity using electronic means. . 3. 1. 3Relation to other Laws Such laws that are affected with this are the Intellectual Property Rights, Copyrights Protection. These laws give protection to the parties involved in any business activities through electronic means. Fraud is also related as the government can charge you when you make accept payment illegally by disguising your site as a reliable option for payment. 1. 3. 1. 4 CASE in E-Commerce Censorship is very an essential tool to distinguish the moralities of websites and the cooperation of companies to acknowledge said moralities.In China, Google's operations created a storm of criticism when the company agreed to comply with the government's wishes and censor pro-democracy and other websites. In 2010, Google relocated its Chinese operations to Hong Kong, putting it outside China's censorship regime. Supporters of the decision say Google shouldn't cooperate with China's repressive policies, while critics say Google's withdrawal cut off millions of Chinese citizens from the company's services and weakens its presence in one of the world's largest markets. This case has very evident ethical issues including the move of Google to relocate its operations to Hong Kong.This made the jurisdiction of China’s censorship policy not reachable so that they can use their assets more freely. These however made the citizens of China that is inside the jur isdiction of the censorship policy long for their beneficial search engine. If seen in Google’s benefits this is a rather good trade for them to maximize the use of their services in a commercial area such as Hong Kong yet they could’ve served the citizens so they can keep up their reputation of improving life in the world and be consistent of the famous line â€Å"Don’t be evil†.I generally disagree with their decision to relocate as they could’ve followed the updated utilitarianism and give their services to those who would need them the most. Still they acted the ethical egoism to censor pro – democracy sites which are morally good to their perspective. 1. 3. 1. 5Another Example Including Google Google gathers incredible amounts of data on people who use its search engine. As of 2011, the company's website states that although it stores records of your searches as a tool to improve corporate efficiency, it renders them anonymous after nin e months and deletes cookies used to track visitors after two years.Governments could use Google's information to investigate individuals visiting particular websites, however, and Google Earth's photo collection also has raised privacy questions: In 2008, a couple sued on the grounds the online photos of their home violated their privacy, but a judge threw out the lawsuit the next year. This case is provides insight to how Google can be of every use to our society as they can help the government catch fugitives, suspects and criminals with their records of the searches of the every person using their search engines yet this leaves them to violate certain privacy issues when they abuse that kind of power.The lawsuit of the couple may be dismissed by a judge but their lawsuit are supported by ethical theories namely the rights – based theories which states that there are social contracts that should be acknowledged and that includes their right for privacy. They may be legal t o store records such as the photo from their Google Earth but they should have to limit their power to exercise their duty as they are also supported by the duty – based theories due to their daily or continual task of improving corporate efficiency as well as giving us access to unlimited knowledge. 1. 3. 2 Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 (RA 10175) 1. . 3. 1 Preliminary Provisions 1. 3. 3. 2. 1. 1 Brief History of RA 10175 Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012 or also known as Republic Act No. 10175 was approved on September 12, 2012. This is first law in the Philippines which specifically criminalizes computer-related crimes. The Cybercrime Prevention Act in its current form is the product of House Bill No. 5808, authored by Representative Susan Tap-Sulit of the second district of Tarlac and 36 other co-authors. The final version of the Act was later signed into law by President Benigno Aquino III on September 12, 2012. 1. 3. 2. 1. 1 Declaration of PolicyThe main objective o f this Act is to protect the people from cybercrimes and also from the harmful effects associated with it. The state also aims to recognize the vital roles of information and communications industries in the country. The state also recognizes the need to protect and safeguard the citizens of the state, and also to protect the integrity of computers and its users. The state also wants to recognize the importance of providing an environment conducive to the development acceleration, and rational application and exploitation of information and communications technology. . 3. 3. 2. 1 General Provisions 1. 3. 3. 2. 2. 2. 1 Punishable Acts In this Act, there are 10 punishable acts indicated in the bill, and those punishable acts each have penalties that are associated. In the next sentences, the punishable acts will be discussed briefly. Offenses against the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of computer data and systems: A. Illegal Access – accessing a computer or a part of a computer without any right B.Illegal Interception – the interception made by the use of any technical device without any right of non-public transmission of datum to or from any computer system including electromagnetic emissions from a computer system carrying such data C. Data Interference – the intentional or any reckless alteration, damaging, deletion or deterioration of computer data, electronic document, or electronic data message, without any right including the transmission or transferring viruses into a system. One example is the ILOVEYOU message transmitted through electronic mail way back in the year 2000.D. System Interference – the intentional or any reckless hindering or interference with a functioning computer system, or a computer network by inputting, transmitting, damaging, deleting, deteriorating, altering, or supressing computer data or computer program without any right or authority in doing so. E. Misuse of Devices – the use of any material without any right of it. Acts like producing, manufacturing, selling, and distribution. F. Cyber-squatting – the simplest way is identity theft, using another individual’s identity to gain profit or scam other people in the internet.G. Computer-related Forgery – the illegal use of a computer into copying one’s work, and gaining illegal access to a computer to copy the content of a system or database. H. Computer-related Fraud – the unauthorized input, alteration, or deletion of computer data or program or interference in the functioning of a computer system. I. Computer-related Identity Theft – the intentional acquisition, use, transfer, or possession of any identifying information belonging to another person, whether natural of juridical. Under these are Cybersex and Child Pornography. J.Libel –    defined as a public and malicious imputation of a crime, or of a vice or defect, real or imaginary, or any acts, omission , condition, status or circumstance tending to discredit or cause the dishonour or contempt of a natural or juridical person committed through a computer system or any other similar means which may be devised in the future. The above stated are the punishable acts by the law enforced and written in the bill, and these acts have corresponding penalties if have been proven to the court. The penalties include: imprisonment or a fine of at least two hundred thousand pesos (Php. 00,000. 00) up to a maximum amount commensurate to the damage incurred or both. Prison mayor is equivalent to imprisonment from 6 years and one day to twelve years. 1. 3. 3 Ethical/ Moral Dilemmas 1. 3. 4. 2 Situation A 16-year old male named â€Å"Josh Evans† was registered on the account used for bullying messages to a girl named Megan Mier. Lori Drew, the mother of Sarah, a former friend Mier, later admitted creating the MySpace account. She was aided by Sarah and Ashley Grills, an 18-year-old employee of the elder Drew.The senior Drew and several others ran the fake account, with an aim to get information about Megan and use that information against her and also for her to be humiliated. This caused spreading gossips about Megan, and thus creating a traumatic experience not only for her but also to her family. 1. 3. 4. 3 Analysing using the Four Major Ethical Theories A. Duty-based Theory According to the Duty-based theory, an act is considered ethical if it has good intentions. Given the situation, I can clearly state that it is not an ethical thing to do. Creating or spreading false rumours is not even close to be called as a good intention.Also, gathering information about a certain person is not ethical if it will be used against or be held against to a person. Using the Duty-Based Theory, I can clearly state that the situation of gathering information of Megan is not ethical because it does not serve a good intention. B. Utilitarianism According to the Utilitarianism Theory an act is only to be considered ethical if it produces desirable consequences or outcomes. The outcome of the situation stated earlier is that the experience Megan was traumatic not only for herself, but it also affected her family.Just by looking at this outcome, we can say that it is not also considered ethical in this theory, because of the outcomes that the actions of the group had caused not only their target but also the relationship of other people to Megan. C. Social Contract Theory According to the social contract theory an act is considered ethical if the act does not violate any rules or laws; according to the Civil Code of the Philippines: Persons and Family Relations, under Chapter 2 which is Human Relations the Articles 19, 20 and 21 discusses the different rights a person possesses and how a person should exercise his or her rights.Chapter 2 Article 19 presents the basic principles that are to be observed for the rightful relationship between human beings and the stab ility of the social order. Chapter 2 Article 20 presents that you are liable for any damage that you have caused to another person, whether wilfully or negligently. Chapter 2 Article 26 presents that right must never abused, the moment that it is abused, the moment rights are abused they ceased to right. D. Virtue According to the Virtue theory, the action that is considered to be ethical is when the action is came from a good moral principle.Looking to the situation, it is not an ethical thing to do because it does only harm the person involved but also the moral principles of the suspect is to be questioned. 1. 3 Trustworthy Computing 1. 4. 1 Microsoft’s 4 Pillars of trustworthy Computing The 4 Pillars of trustworthy computing help identify the key elements in computing especially in an organization with numerous employees to manage. Guidance is a key to help implement a good and stable system such as how the pillars guide not just Microsoft employees but users alike. 1. 4. . 1 Security Creation of a trust worthy environment for a safe computing environment 1. 4. 2. 2 Privacy The protection and confidentiality of design, development and testing in any organization is essential as to be part of the competitive market today. 1. 4. 2. 3 Reliability Working as expected or promised by the developers and their entity 1. 4. 2. 4 Business Integrity Being responsible and transparent in you duties and expectation as part of a work force that strives to be excellent a mistake is bound to happen.Admitting a mistake is the 1st step to a growing process of learning new things to come. 1. 4. 2 Risk Assessment It is the process of assessing security related risks to an organization’s computers and networks from both internal and external (Reynolds, 2011) A risk assessment is a process to identify potential hazards and analyse what could happen if a hazard occurs. (Federal Emergency Management Agency, 2013) The assessment would assure the IT security team that they will be ready when an attack comes because of the determined risk assessment they perform. 1. 4. 1 General Security Risk Assessment ProcessStep 1: Identify IT assets and prioritize ones that are of most importance Step 2: Identify the threats/risks that could occur Step 3: Assess the likelihood of threats Step 4: Determine the impact of each threat, how large to small is the impact if affected Step 5: Determine how each threat can be prevented/blocked Step 6: Which is the most effective prevention method Step 7: Perform cost benefit analysis before taking any action Step 8: Make the decision to implement or not to implement the decided risk prevention found through thorough research and development 1. 4. 3 Establishing a security policyDefines an organization’s security requirements, as well as controls and sanctions needed to meet those requirements. (Reynolds, 2011) A good security policy can possibly improve and provide a smooth flow of operations within an organizati on. NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) is a non-regulatory federal agency within the US department of commerce. The computer security division creates security standards for organizations to implement in their own system. 1. 4. 4 Educating the Employees, Contractor and Part-Time Workers Surveys show that most security problems come from negligence and unawareness of the security policies.Teaching good security practices like not giving out your passwords, making sure you do not meddle in different departments. Knowing the Dos and DONTs of everyday computing will help guide any workplace and direct them to the good ways of being a good user. 1. 4. 5 Threat Prevention The key to a threat prevention system are layers of security systems that challenge the perpetrator to hack into the system. Firewall – stands guard between an organization’s internal network and the internet Intrusion Prevention Systems – prevents an attack by blocking viruses, ma lformed packets and other threats from getting into a protected network.Antivirus software – should be installed on each user’s personal computer to scan a computer’s disk drives and memory regularly for viruses. User accounts that remain active after employees leave cause an uncertain threat to the company, IT staff must promptly delete and make sure to wipe out all the privileges of the former employee. The US-CERT (United States Computer Emergency Network Team) and SANS(SysAdmin, Audit, Network,System) Institute – regularly update a summary of the most frequent and high impact threats to a computer system specifically viruses and worms. . 4. 6 Security Audit An important prevention tool that evaluates whether an organization has a good security policy and if it is being followed. An example would be a requirement to change passwords every week or month with this in place a security for companies are much more protected compared to others without this r equirement. Basically to test, check and review the system’s security and look for loop holes and easy targets. 1. 4. 7 Detection The preventive measures made for a computer system is not always enough to protect important data.Intrusion detection system – is a software/hardware that monitors system and network resources, notifies a system admin when an intrusion occurs Knowledge based intrusion system – contains information about attacks and system vulnerabilities, then trigger an alarm (ex. Repeated login, repeated data events) Behaviour based intrusion system – compares users system behaviour with an admin created model that detects when a user is not following the required model, this would trigger an alarm. (Example: Unusual activity with an account in the HR department accessing the IT department’s data. 1. 4. 8 ResponseAn organization should be prepared for the worst, like a system attack that stops all operations and steals data from the co mpany. The top priority during an attack is not to catch the perpetrator but to regain control and save what is left. Who needs to be informed? And who not to notify? Reputation and credibility is at stake in any security breach. A company should document all details of a security breach and be able to review it after to assess and further study. Eradication of the damaged/breached information is essential but before everything a log is required to keep track 1. . 9 Ethical Moral Dilemmas You are a member of a large IT security support group of a large manufacturing company. You have been awakened late at night and informed that someone has defaced your organization’s website and also attempted to gain access to computer files containing a new product under development. What are your next steps? How much time would you spend tracking down the hacker? -Deontological 1. 5 References * (1999, 10). Electronic Commerce. StudyMode. com. Retrieved 10, 1999, from http://www. studymod e. com/essays/Electronic-Commerce-731. tml * THE ELECTRONIC COMMERCE ACT (R. A. 8792) AN OVERVIEW OF IT? S (INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY) IMPACT ON THE PHILIPPINE LEGAL SYSTEM(2005 006). ‘www. ustlawreview. com/pdf/vol. L/Articles/The_Electronic_Commerce_Act_RA_8792. pdf * What Is the Difference: Viruses, Worms, Trojans, and Bots? – Cisco Systems. (n. d. ). Cisco Systems, Inc. Retrieved from http://www. cisco. com/web/about/security/intelligence/virus-worm-diffs. html * What Is A Rootkit? (n. d. ). Internet / Network Security – Tips, Advice and Tutorials About Internet Security and Network Security.Retrieved from http://netsecurity. about. com/od/frequentlyaskedquestions/f/faq_rootkit. htm * Julian. (2011). 10 Most Notorious Acts of Corporate Espionage. Retrieved from http://www. businesspundit. com/10-most-notorious-acts-of-corporate-espionage/ * Katich, A. (2013). Anonymous (Annie Katich). Retrieved from http://socialactive. wordpress. com/2013/02/25/anonymous-annie- katich/ * Verini, J. (2010). The Great Cyberheist. Retrieved from http://www. nytimes. com/2010/11/14/magazine/14Hacker-t. html/

Thursday, August 29, 2019

PASS Lifestyle, Leisure and Recreation Essay

Introduction: The recreation and leisure activities present in our world today are differ from what generations 100 years ago participated in. Our physical environment is changing continuously under the effect of natural, cultural and economic systems which influence people’s lifestyles. As lifestyles change, peoples’ way of spending their leisure time, and leisure activity preferences, also change. Urban open public spaces such as parks seem to lose their popularity as shopping malls have become the new leisure centres due to the increasing need â€Å"to consume† of today’s societies. Our age has the accessibility of information and convenience of abundant transport to take us the venues that we can enjoy ourselves, or free ourselves from the issues of our daily life. Information of available activities that we know today, mainly come from sources such as the internet and the television or media. Media has shaped the many lifestyles of today, via their advertising of activities and appliances. By shifting our lifestyle, some of our interests in recreation and leisure have changed over the ages. Activities that existed 100 years ago but not today: Stickball. Stickball was a street game that is immensely related to baseball which adapts to the environment it was played in. The activity only required a rubber ball and a stick of any form. This activity has gradually died out, as people started to earn more money to afford playing other sports that involved swinging at a ball. The media also helped advertise America’s Major League Baseball, which put peoples’ interest into a more popular activity. Some people believe that this activity did not actually die out as it was the origin of all bat-and-ball sports that exist today. Playing Cards and Dominoes Since people living in the early 1900s, mainly middle-aged men, gathered together at bars after their day’s work, they took attraction to group activities. Their main activities were card games which involved betting small amounts of money or a glass of beer. In their houses, Dominoes was a common family game which appealed to all age groups. In today’s lifestyle, not all people have the luxury of time to participate in these activities or have lost interest due to the introduction of personal technological devices. These devices include the popularised iPod and computers, in which people can ‘surf’ the internet to find out many leisure and recreational activities which suit their lifestyle. Activities that exist now but not 100 years ago: Shopping The availability of shopping centres has increased rapidly in the past 10 years, as the world’s economy grew, and the average earning of families increased. The shopping for recreation and leisure of today mainly refers to excessive buying of ‘wanted’ materials for interest of the buyer. This modern activity is common among females, usually in groups. It fits into the lifestyles of women who do not work on weekends, and consumes much of the day, thus the inclusion of food courts in shopping centres. 100 years ago, shopping was not popularised as income of an average household was lower, and many women had to stay home to attend to the housework. The availability of shopping centres and transport to shopping centre venues was limited during that time. Most of the time, shopping was a chore rather than a leisure activity because it involved buying needs for the family, such as food and learning materials. Extreme Sports With increased knowledge and equipment to ensure safety, extreme sports are quite popular in modern society. These activities often involve speed, height, a high level of physical exertion, and they can help isolate thoughts of current issues, help set new goals, and improve physical fitness. Some extreme sports which are available near suburban areas are: mountain bike riding, indoor or outdoor rock-climbing, body boarding and canoeing. In the 1900s, people were not aware of these activities due to the inconvenience of less media sources. Among teenagers and young adults, free running is particularly popular in city areas which have a variety of artificial environments. This activity did not exist 100 years ago because it originated from later popular movements like graffiti and internet groups. Dining Out The modern society values the bonding of couples more than the world 100 years ago. A common activity amongst couples is dining out, to create an atmosphere of romanticism. By observing the growing population, the variety of employed jobs is also growing. The food industry is one of the largest in the world, and has led to the creation of restaurants of different cuisines. Since the countries of the world are becoming more multicultural, people want to break away from eating their traditional foods. Dining out provides a solution to changing tastes, and may sometimes aid in saving time as cooking at home may take several hours when attempting to provide fine food. Activities which existed 100 years ago and still exist now: Soccer 100 years ago, soccer teams received growing groups of supporting members and fans that popularise the sport. The soccer associations of today have provided many opportunities for sport betting, employment and sponsorship to advertise brands or companies. In many schools of the 1900s and today, grassed areas were easily converted to soccer fields so that students could play this sport during or after school time. Older age groups can join soccer clinics and clubs where they can play for enjoyment at learning levels to competitive levels. Watching soccer matches is also considered a recreational and leisure activity among fan groups which follow the current soccer. Film Going out to watch movies was a leisure and recreational activity that was present 100 years ago and now. This activity is popular as many films relate to the current world affairs. This activity would not have survived if not for the extremely low pricing of cinema tickets in the 1900s. The price of tickets has inflated in our era, but this is acceptable as our average income has increased. Conclusion: From the research I have accumulated in recreational and leisure activities of 100 years ago and today, I have found out that a major factor of the changing pursuits has been the shifting of daily lifestyles. The trends originating from media has shaped the many lifestyles of our world today, which has in turn changed our interests. Another factor of our leisure and recreational pursuits is the availability of information and transport we have today that lets us do what we want. However, the popularity of early activities has declined as our society has further developed these activities, while the appeal of the activities has been surpassed by our modern trends and movements.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Discuss the claim that to understand any one citys fortunes fully it Essay

Discuss the claim that to understand any one citys fortunes fully it is necessary to follow the interconnections between cities - Essay Example The images of cities bring forth bustling streets, unending streams of vehicles, people jostling with each other for space and attention, faceless groups of people hurrying either to work or home, crowded markets and unruly by lanes, libraries, hospitals, hotels, museums, traffic, cathedrals and other religious places, skyscrapers and underground and on ground railways and more than anything else, lighting and brightness all over. We also notice that mostly people are lonely in the crowd, lost in their own thoughts and hurrying towards the next goal. Very rarely one could see the heartening sights of people walking companionably together in groups. Cities are not accidental happenings. They are created for a purpose, the result of a long and interesting evolution of the landscape. They must have started as the centres of a certain activity and with additional activities growing around it, they have formed into present cities. Cities do not spring up without reason. There always exist economical, social, geographical or historical reasons for their materialising from nowhere. They are the focussed places of social, cultural and geographical mass. They are the centres of many activities and had been the hubs of certain bustling, continuous activity for a long time, and hence, they have grown into cities. All of us have our own pleasant and unpleasant experiences of the cities. Intensity of urban life differs from place to place, from city to city. Every city differs from another if urban elements and social significance are taken into account. Cities could be awe-inspiring for a villager. A city could be romanticised, revered, mystified, or even feared. Every city has its own individuality. It has even its own skyline from which usually it is recognised. Famous cities have popular skylines, and their recognition is instantaneous. "From this perspective, city life is distinctive because its scale is larger and activities more intense than anywhere else," (p.6). Massey et al are of the opinion that smaller cities like Kuala Lumpur try to rival with bigger cities like New York by having impressive skyscrapers, even though skyscraper like announcements are unnecessary for a city. There are arguments that cities with impressive skyscrapers also have people begging on the streets and slums full of misery. Every city is not a planned city. Most of the cities are grown in a rather uncontrolled way adjusting itself to the geography and the main activity of the city. Some of these cities, though rather cumbersome, are a few of the most attractive cities in the world. City is a hub of activity and hence, centre of many connections and networks. These connections could be of any kind and mode; social, economical, cultural, religious, historical, political, commercial, business-oriented or even connected with tourism or transport. It could be connected with a port where goods are loaded and unloaded and around the activities of the port, a city could have been built. It could be connected with the movements of the army, navy or a business centre, famous for certain trade. It could be housing one of the major businesses and the city might have been built around this particular business. There are thousands and thousands of possibilities. Today, new cities are springing up on the ruins of

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Democratic Governance in a real life issue Essay

Democratic Governance in a real life issue - Essay Example It is a set of principles that protect human freedom. All democracies operate on the principle of majority rule, keeping in mind the interests of the minority groups as well as individuals. Democracies are diverse, reflecting each nation's unique political, social, and cultural life. Democracies rest upon fundamental principles, not uniform practices. Democracies guard against all-powerful central governments and decentralize government to regional and local levels, understanding that local government must be as accessible and responsive to the people as possible. Democratic societies are committed to the values of tolerance, cooperation, and compromise. Democracies recognize that reaching consensus requires compromise and that it may not always be attainable. Democracy functions in the gamut of defined and undefined parameters. It also manifests itself in the form of certain parameters. A deeper understanding of these parameters would provide an insight into the functioning of a democracy. In fact from a macrocosmic perspective, democracy just cannot be restricted to the political ambit. It is a way of life and extends to one's personal as well as professional demeanor. However in order to understand its extension and application into these areas, it is mandatory to take a deeper look at what democracy entails and ensues. There are systems that serve as indicators of a democratic set up. These indicators not only shape the democratic operations but also sustain them. Equality is an innate parameter plus an indicator of a democratic set up. Equality reflects a positive connotation. Equality in its prescriptive usage has a close connection with morality and justice. When we talk about democratic equality, a natural question arises: equality in what Democratic equality cannot mean equality in everything: there are many inequalities that democracy does not deal with. There are five criteria that mark a democratic process: voting equality, effective participation, enlightened understanding, control of the agenda, and inclusion of all adult members in collective decisions. These five criteria make the democratic process fully consistent with the logic of political equality. Violating any of the five criteria not only renders the process undemocratic, but also renders it incompatible with the logic of political equality. Professor Giovanni Sartori's two-volume book, The Theory of Democracy Revisited, contains an excellent treatment on various forms of e quality and their roles in democratic thinking. Sartori thinks that "[i]nequality is 'nature'; equality is denaturalization. . . . Equality stands out, first and foremost, as a protest ideal, indeed, as the protest ideal par excellence" (Sartori, 1987, p. 337). In terms of their relationship with democracy, says Sartori, some equalities preceded democracy, while others are democratic claims. Pre-democratic equalities include equality before the law, equal and inalienable rights and equal freedom or moral equality. These equalities are more the products of Christianity, ethics, natural law and liberal ideals than of democracy. In contrast, three other equalities stand out as distinctively democratic demands. These are full political equality, social equality (as equal status and consideration regardless of class or wealth) and

Equity and Trusts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 2

Equity and Trusts - Essay Example As anyone who has read Dickens, Bleak house will know, by the 18th century, equity had itself become rigid. The origins of the jurisdiction have been prevailed and the principles of equity can now be applied in every civil court in the land. One of equity’s greatest inventions has been the ‘trust’. The trust is a form of ownership that developed in England through the courts of Chancery. Trust can be defined as the written instruments that give title to or an interest in real estate. A trustee holds title on behalf of the lender, known as the beneficiary who is the legal owner. Trust law applies whenever one person has placed trust and confidence in another person to manage his or her affairs. The full force of the law of equity governs such relationships and the trust now provides a mechanism for a number of situations, family relationships, charities, pension funds, to name but a few. The common benefits that a trust offer includes are: (i) Providing financial a nd personal safeguard for family and other beneficiaries, (ii) Establishing a means of controlling or administering property, taxes, (iii) Meeting other social or commercial goals, and (iv) Postponing or avoiding unnecessary.

Monday, August 26, 2019

Week 10 Assignment 5.2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Week 10 Assignment 5.2 - Essay Example In Asia Pacific alone, the industry is seeing a rapid growth in air travel demand. (Kollau, R., 2011) In the western part of the world, Southwest Airlines is one of the leaders in low-cost carriers. (Jones, C., 2012) The company registered a net income of $421 million in 2012 with over 3,000 flights daily. (Southwest, 2013) With the demand for low-cost air travel increasing, airline companies are coming up with ways to get their share of consumers to stay in business. Although Southwest Airlines is still earning revenue (S.D., 2011), it should not be complacent and should continue to look for ways to keep making income. One method is to acquire a bigger aircraft which could accommodate more passengers but at the same time be cost-efficient. Comparisons and projections were made between the efficiency of Southwest Airlines’ existing fleet and a new fleet inclusive of the Boeing 737-900ER, by far the biggest aircraft in the series. (Boeing, 2013) Data was gathered from the websites of Boeing and Southwest Airlines. With the inclusion of AirTran’s planes which Southwest acquired in May 2011, Southwest Airlines had operated 694 Boeing jets by the end of 31 December 2012. (Southwest, 2013) This is equivalent to a combined seating capacity of 94,310. Figure 1 shows the breakdown of airplane type, number of aircrafts per type and the seats per aircraft. The Boeing 737-900ER replaced the 737-900 between 1997 and 2003. It is the latest model in the 737 series and can carry up to 180 passengers or up to 220 passengers depending on the layout. (Boeing, 2013) Figure 2 shows the additional seating capacity of the Southwest Airlines fleet with the Boeing 737-900ER. With a significantly lower operating cost, the 737-900ER is capable of going to 96% of the route of an obsolete but popular Boeing model, the 757. (Media, 2013) The newer model has been in demand in the industry ever since its

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Organizational Development in HRD Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Organizational Development in HRD - Case Study Example he lease by the state of Indiana through the Indiana Department of Natural Resources, mainly because of the economic strength of the investors. The Inn is operated as a separate business project, however, it does contribute to the sales of the marina as it is a lucrative business and is booked heavily in the season, which runs from Memorial Day weekend to Labor Day Weekend. Although the complex is operational year round, the sales decrease drastically after the Labor Day weekend. Jack Keltner has just recently replaced Leon McLaughlin as the general manager of the marina. He is also the accounting manager of the Inn. The Marina lacked any formal accounting checks till now, and Keltner has introduced certain changes and features to counter this problem. He has also proposed several improvements in the complex in order to increase the profits of the marina, which had just recently been going into loss. Strengths: The main strengths of the complex are its three docks to the left of the central dock, that is, E, F, and G. They are booked well in advance and there are waiting lists. The Inn is another lucrative business that augments the profits of the marina. It has the only showroom in the state with the biggest boats for sale, and is the largest marina of its kind in the country. Weaknesses: The main weakness is the lack of experience of the staff in the trade of marinas, especially the general managers; the former had experience in ship repair, and the current is an accountant. The three docks to the right, A, B, and C, are not rented to the full capacity. The rental boats are more in number than are required, with the average rental capacity around fifty percent. This means more labor for maintenance. The

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Bussiness Management and Outsourcing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Bussiness Management and Outsourcing - Essay Example Moreover, the threat of significant job losses allows large firms to demand changes to labor legislation that further weaken labor. In addition to endangering jobs, wages, labor standards and union powers, globalization also hastens the decline of social safety nets (Becker, 1993). Citing international competitiveness, business has been able to shift the tax burden to labor. But job losses and low wages will erode this tax base, reducing governments' ability to finance welfare programs. Globalization thus undermines labor strength, reinforcing the impact of higher levels of overall unemployment on capital's ability to control the workplace in the developed economies (Bateman and Snell 2004). Service Industry Analysis At the beginning of the 21st century, IT is viewed as a strategic tool which helps organizations to expend their activities and increase profits. IT outsourcing is often seen as an opportunities to provide a competitive advantage and increased value for the enterprise. The absorptive capacity based on appropriate technology related skills needs to be measured against both the demands of the international economy and the local environment where a skills base for using IT is even more important. Changes in management philosophy are giving opportunities to the small and medium-sized enterprises that cater to the demands of national and internationally operating companies (Cullen and Willcocks, 2003). However, the businesses that fare well under the new management organizational scenario are those which acquire the necessary business, commercial, and technological skills. The main causes of outsourcing are prices and wages, communication and transportation costs. For many companies, cap acity building to develop appropriate skills is a dynamic process. As... It is stated that today, the UK economy mostly depends upon international labor supply and international business relations. Taking advantage of technology transfer opportunities, their rapid industrialization has been aided by the introduction of advanced technologies that result in labor costs substantially below those in similar industries in the developed economies. This in itself would contribute to the surge in exports to the developed economies. There are several problems with outsourcing faced by the state and companies. Recent years, a large number of engineers have been sent abroad by SMEs and TNCs. Thus, critics admit that the UK needs these research projects to be kept at home. In conclusion, IT outsourcing helps companies to improve their main operations and service quality, gain competitive advantage and save costs. It proposes company opportunities to reduce labor costs and increase service volumes and a number of traditional services proposed to customers, restructure business and invest in personal growth and development. Companies are increasingly finding that, if they combine their information assets with those of other companies, the combined information resource is considerably more useful to all sides. In this new environment, small companies may have advantages created by outsourcing, because their contact with customers will mostly be channeled through the telephone, or increasingly e-mail, they will be able to record and keep track of their customer's preferences and needs much more effectively.

Friday, August 23, 2019

Cellular pathology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Cellular pathology - Essay Example Eosin is orange pink. The morphology of the tissue The morphology of this tissue from a patient with gastritis is that its inflammatory infiltrate is consisted of lymphocytes that appear dispersed with nodular structures. This complication is termed as lymphocytic gastritis where lymphocytes are detected within the epithelia of granular that are a component of the inflammatory disease. Primary gastric lymphomas lead to more severe intra-glandular lymphocytic infiltrate that destroys or partially replaces the structure of glandular continuity. The presence of neutrophils within the lamina propria of the tissue defines the active inflammation in the gastric mucosa. The gastric biopsy sample develops different glands population (mucosecreting mucosa). The minuscule foci of metaplastic cells may occasionally be encountered in the foveola epithelium, but the overall appropriate glands’ density is not affected. There is also the gastric atrophy that involves the loss of the appropriate glan ds. This occurs where metaplastic glands hence developing a new commitment replace the native glands. The replacement leads to fewer structures of glands. The pathogenesis of the organism demonstrated by the Giemsa stain Modified Giemsa stain is used to identifying the pathogenesis of the organism with the gastritis infection. The organism has been found to be frequently associated with H. Pylori (Helicobacter pylori) that is a negative bacillus. In this histological examination with the Giemsa recognises H. Pylori as curved, short and spiral bacilli located on the surface of epithelial in the layer of mucus of gastric mucosa. Though the diagnosis appeared very slow in sensitivity and specificity, the organism seemed to be originating from H. Pylori in single bacilli of mild colonization. The patient who originally detected to have chronic active gastritis in

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Short story Essay Example for Free

Short story Essay This short story was written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in 1891, in the Victorian period. The two main characters of this story are Sherlock Holmes, a private detective who can solve any case however difficult it is and Dr. Watson, a medical surgeon who served in the 5th regiment of Northumberland Fusiliers and moved to the Second Anglo-Afghan War where he was wounded and after that, sent back to London, now helps Sherlock Holmes to solve their cases. These characters are very different; they have nothing in common, for example: while Sherlock is a great observer, Dr. Watson is terrible at this. 1. Main body of essay. 2.1 Sherlock Holmes. 2. 1. 1 Physical appearance. Sherlock is thin, tall, has a thin nose, deep eyes and long nervous hands 2. 1. 2 Psychological Character and behavior: Sherlock is observant, cold minded , precise, and has a balanced mind, he is also a great observer. 2. 2 Dr. Watson. 2. 2. 1 Physical appearance 2. 2. 2 Psychological Character and behavior Dr. Watson is all the opposite of Sherlock, he is an ordinary man, who lacking in Holmess insight but also he profoundly admires Holmes. The relationship between Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson. This short story was written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle in 1891, in the Victorian period. The two main characters of this story are Sherlock Holmes, a private detective who can solve any case however difficult it is and Dr. Watson, a medical surgeon who served in the 5th regiment of Northumberland Fusiliers and moved to the Second Anglo-Afghan War where he was wounded and after that, sent back to London, now helps Sherlock Holmes to solve their cases. These characters are very different; they have nothing in common, for example: while Sherlock is a great observer, Dr. Watson is terrible at this. Sherlock Holmes and Dr. Watson have been seen as the ultimate partners for as long as they have been in print. Watson ends up marrying Mary and establishing a firm medical practice. After this, he stays away from Holmes for a long time. One day he decided to go to his old house in Baker Street, then he saw Sherlock through the window and rang the bell, it was the first time that they met since the marriage. The moment was like they never been apart, Sherlock acted normally and impress Watson once again with his deductions. After a few minutes Watson decided to go but something strange happened, Sherlock said with a different words that he needs Watson; this are the words: Not a bit, Doctor. Stay where you are. I am lost without my Boswell. And this promises to be interesting. It would be a pity to miss it. Dr. Samuel Johnson was a famous English essayist and scholar, and James Boswell was his admirer and companion, just as Dr. Watson was Holmess admiring companion. Furthermore, Boswell kept a diary and wrote all about Dr. Johnson, just as Watson wrote about Holmess adventures. They need each other. Their relationship is far deeper than anything that meets the eye; they mean more to each other than just a business partner or friend. Some have seen their relationship as anything from that of best friends No matter what Watson and Holmes mean to each other, both men seem to follow certain trends throughout the story: Watson will always be inferior to Holmes. He is not a good observer, according to Sherlock, Watson sees but does not observe. Through conversation and description of each other, both men continue to follow this trend. Even though sometimes Watson strays to make a comment or two about Holmes and his laziness or what not, he always comes back to praise him again. He profoundly admires Holmes.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Meaning of Life and Australian Cultural Identity Essay Example for Free

Meaning of Life and Australian Cultural Identity Essay â€Å"From separate catastrophes, two rural families flee to the city and find themselves sharing a great, breathing, shuddering joint called Cloudstreet, where they begin their lives again from scratch. For twenty years they roister and rankle, laugh and curse until the roof over their heads becomes a home for their hearts. † (Winton, 1991) Tim Winton’s critically acclaimed novel, Cloudstreet is a masterful tale of love, meaning and heartbreaking tragedy that speaks strongly of a post war Australian society that was essentially rebuilding itself after years of political upheaval and financial struggle. Good Morning/Afternoon Ladies and Gentleman. I am a representative of the National English Curriculum board and today I am here to demonstrate to you how Cloudstreet is authentic and believable, and as Marieke Hardy suggests: â€Å"It is Australian. Reading it felt like coming home. † Throughout Cloudstreet, there are numerous concepts that portray the Australian cultural identity; and the theme of religion and spirituality is especially prominent and appealing. The concept of luck, Aboriginal spirituality, and the search for the meaning of life, are all Australian ideas that Winton expertly portrays. Spirituality can be defined as â€Å"a concern for that which is unseen or intangible; as opposed to physical or mundane. † (Greenberg, 2008) It encourages a sense of peace and purpose within an individual and promotes a feeling of belonging. Additionally, religion can be defined as â€Å"the belief in, and worship of a superhuman controlling power. † (Religion) Both concepts are widely integrated into the core of the novel and are depicted through the Australian notion of luck. Luck, which some would argue has long been etched into the Australian consciousness as a common working class superstition, is, whether they are conscious of it or not, a form of religion for both families. The Pickles family, most notably Sam, rely on the â€Å"shifty shadow of God† (p 12) to warn them about future events, while the Lamb’s simple game of â€Å"spinning the knife† (p 53) acts as their metaphorical life compass. â€Å"The Lucky Country† (Horne, 1964) is a phrase that originated from a book of the same name written in the 1960’s, and since then, has gained widespread popularity and thus, been attached to the Australian culture for a long time. Winton has cleverly examined this historical background to incorporate an accurate facet of the Australian identity into the novel and its characters. Also related to the concept of luck, is the fact that after Fish drowns, Oriel, once a devoted and â€Å"god fearing† Christian, begins to question her faith and the reliability of believing in God. When Fish is resuscitated, but only â€Å"some of him comes back†, (p 32) both she and Lester are emotionally forced to abandon God and Christianity and instead, turn to luck, hard work and the idea that â€Å"life and death, was all there was,† (p 65) in order to endure their circumstances. This draws on the common â€Å"Aussie battler† tradition, of which a working class person overcame challenging situations through perseverance, faith and steadfast determination. In terms of the Australian cultural identity, Winton has again taken an important and recognized historical Australian idea and shaped it to evoke feelings of familiarity and intimacy between the readers and the characters of Cloudstreet. The frequent appearance of the â€Å"Blackfella† is yet another example of how the Australian cultural identity is portrayed through examination of Aboriginal Spirituality. However, in many scenes throughout the novel, the blackfella signifies both Christian and Aboriginal spirituality through allusion and comparison. For example, he is likened to Jesus by walking on water and again when he produces a never ending supply of wine and bread in Quick’s car. This comparison is particularly effective as it symbolises the â€Å"coming together† of Christianity and Aboriginality, which was a particularly delicate Australian issue during the time period of the novel, due to Aboriginal marginalisation and the rise of Christian ideals. Essentially, the Blackfella acts as a reminder of the original religion inherent to Australia and its development, during a time when social and political change was overtaking that of its native beliefs. The â€Å"Blackfella† also acts as the conscience of the characters when they have lost their way or their family unit is threatened. This can ultimately be seen when he leads Quick back to Cloudstreet after he runs away to the country, knowing that Quick feels secretly lost without his family, and needs them to feel fully alive. He also persuades Sam not the sell the house and states that â€Å"you shouldn’t break a place. Places are strong and important,† (p 406) referring to not only the house and its tragic Aboriginal history, but also to the fragile families who live inside it. In doing so, he ensures that the families stay whole and together, which is an important and dominating religious value for Aboriginality and Christianity, both during the time period of the novel and in our modern Australian society. Consequently, the â€Å"Blackfella’s† role in Cloudstreet is a significant contribution to the novel’s relevancy to the Australian cultural identity. The Australian cultural identity is also illustrated in Cloudstreet through the spiritual symbolism and personification of the river, and its connection to the character’s search for the meaning of life. This is particularly significant for Quick Lamb, who, is spiritually linked to the river in a number of ways. The river acts as a place of peace, purpose and belonging for Quick. Connecting with his mother when they go prawning, glowing after fishing in the country, and most importantly, falling in love with Rose Pickles, are the most significant spiritually defining events that Quick experiences while on the river. Through realising just how symbolically important the river is to him, Quick finally understands the true meaning of his life, and gains a feeling of belonging that allows him to finally shed his self-degrading title of â€Å"the lost lamb. † (p 310) Australia is a country that values the water. Geographically, we are surrounded by it, with most of our population residing close to the shores. As a result of this, the water is seen as a common gathering place, from which one cannot easily escape nor regard as irrelevant to the Australian way of life. Winton has taken this idea and incorporated it into Cloudstreet, to emphasise and promote a relevant part of Australian culture. Finally, the river’s spiritual and religious connection to Fish Lamb is perhaps the most important concept of the novel. After Fish drowns and has his soul ripped into two separate pieces (spiritual fish and physical fish), the river that he so desperately longs for, essentially becomes his gateway to the spiritual world; to the place where he belongs. It is not until the end of the novel when Fish is finally free to reunite with the water that he is truly whole again. â€Å"I burst into the moon, sun and stars of who I really am. Being Fish Lamb. Perfectly. Always. Everyplace. Me. †(p 424) For many, water in Australia is culturally considered to be the blood of the country; a place of cleansing and rejuvenation. Likewise, for Fish, the river embodies the epitome of the spirit of Australia in the form of life giving water. Although his life was initially taken by the water, it is eventually returned to him when his physical self re-joins his spiritual self. In conclusion, Winton flawlessly encapsulates the cultural identity and spirit of Australia in Cloudstreet through symbolic representations of luck, Aboriginal spirituality and the search for the meaning of life. The characters’ connection with religion and spirituality resonates strongly with the reader and successfully evokes feelings of belonging and familiarity that confirms Cloudstreet is indeed a classic Australian novel. Bibliography Associates, R. Q. (2008, September 16). Ideology in Cloudstreet . Retrieved 2013, from www. englishcurriculum. com. au Cloudstreet Notes. (n. d. ). Retrieved 2013, from Sydney Home Tutoring: http://www. sydneyhometutoring. com. au/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Details-Cloudstreet-notes. pdf. Dot Point Notes Cloudstreet. (n. d. ). Retrieved 2013, from Sydney Home Tutoring : http://www. sydneyhometutoring. com. au/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/Dot-Point-Notes-Cloudstreet. pdf. Greenberg, N. (2008, October 8). Retrieved 2013, from Can Spirituality Be Defined: http://notes. utk. edu/bio/unistudy. nsf/935c0d855156f9e08525738a006f2417/bdc83cd10e58d14a852573b00072525d Horne, D. (1964). The Lucky Country. Penguin Books Australia. Religion. (n. d. ). Retrieved 2013, from Google Definitions: https://www. google. com. au/search? q=religion+definition Winton, T. (1991). Cloudstreet. McPhee Gribble.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Employee Relations within TESCO plc

Employee Relations within TESCO plc Table of Contents Introduction Task 1 1.1. Compare the three main learning styles of the HRD theory and apply them in relation to the company outlined in the shaping your future. 1.2. Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of the transferring learning to the workplace in TESCO. 1.3. Assess the contribution of the learning styles and theories when planning and designing the learning event for the TESCO. Task 2 2.1. Compare the training needs for the staff at the different levels in the organization. 2.2. Assess the advantages and the disadvantages of both on job and off job training methods used in an organization. 2.3. Use a systematic approach to plan training and development for five of your staff working at various levels in the organization outlined in the shaping your future. Task 3 3.1 3.2. Using suitable techniques prepare and carry out a training event in an organization outlined in the â€Å"shaping your future† section, identifying the following: Who should evaluate the training? What should be evaluated? When should evaluation take place? Why do we need an evaluation? 3.3. As the company director, explain what are the various models of evaluation that could be used to review the success of the evaluation methods. Task4 4.1. Explain how the UK government has encouraged training, development and lifelong learning over the past years in the NEET sector. 4.2. Explain how the development of the competency movement has impact on the public and the private sectors of the country. 4.3. Analyze how contemporary training initiatives introduced in the UK government has contributed to the HRD policy of the organization identified in the shaping your future? Conclusion References Introduction This project is all about the employees relations with the organization TESCO, Plc. It is the responsibility of the company to assess the skills and the knowledge of their employees and helps them in achieving their goals. The company arranges the various training programs for their employees. TESCO is the multinational grocery merchandise company in the United Kingdom. It founded in 1919 by Jack Cohen and known as the third largest company as a retailer from its profits. Task 1 1.1. Compare the three main learning styles of the HRD theory and apply them in relation to the company outlined in the shaping your future. Honey Mumford defines the three main learning styles of the Human Resource Development related to the company TESCO Plc, UK. 1. Activist: In this learning style, various discussions held in the employees group, abilities handling the problems and qualities of learning tasks are use for performing the various functions held in the TESCO. The team members follow the above styles at the time of facing new environment and the challenge like introduction of the new grocery product by the company or initiate any new offer to the consumers. 2. Reflectors: This style reflects the jobs of operations of the employees of the company TESCO. One can use this for evaluating their own operations by considering the feedback through colleagues and the consumers. Feedback can review to make the performance better (Argyris and Schon,1997). 3. Theorists: Employees those are following the particular learning style first goes through the task completely and does the proper analysis. After analyzing all the pros and cons then reach to the conclusion and take some relevant decision. 4. Pragmatists: A proper planning requires solving any of the problems occur inside the company TESCO Plc. The employees accepts new challenges and adapts new surroundings with proper adjustments but does the perfect planning before performing for the operations to get them complete. 1.2. Explain the role of the learning curve and the importance of the transferring learning to the workplace in TESCO. A learning curve is the representation in the graphs that shows the development by following the continuous techniques by the TESCO, Plc. Through this curve, the company can achieve its goal in the new surroundings of the job. Experience can enhance the knowledge and the skills but the new techniques use by the company only for facing the new challenges and meet new targets. Continuous assessment can improve the skills of the employees. The importance of transferring the learning to the TESCO, Plc is all about the expectations of the company, innovation and the planning of the career made by all employees. It is the essential tool for the workforce to enhance the wide scope of the opportunities within the company (Doorewaard and Benschop, 2003). Various training events organized by the TESCO for improving the skills of the staff members. It increases the employee’s ability. It gives the chance to the management to evaluate the knowledge of the employees and remove any flaws if there. 1.3. Assess the contribution of the learning styles and theories when planning and designing the learning event for the TESCO. The theories of learning help in understanding the factors of the company TESCO, plc and about the workforces. Learning event is organizes by the company for the employees to meet their company goals. Acquisition of theories state about the structures, types of the learning and its implementations that how knowledge is relevant directly. The company faces the new challenges because of the new structure and the values of the TESCO, Plc. They select the particular learning theory and the style after consider the changes, improvements and the scope of the accountability. An appropriate event designs by the employer for the better results by showing the great impact on the employee’s performance. Task 2 2.1. Compare the training needs for the staff at the different levels in the organization. The company should give the family atmosphere to the employees for motivating them. Requirement varies at the different level of the staff members. Needs of training at the different levels in the TESCO, Plc are. Management Level Leadership quality, taking decisions, Developing skills Consumer Level Manages all queries and complaints by giving solutions. Workshops for the qualitative consumer service. Operation Level Advice for improving the performance and review them of the managers to improve their efficiency and gives them motivation. In the company TESCO, Plc Managerial staff acts as the trainers and counsel their team members in increasing their skills. Employees at the various levels grow as per their accountability of job activities and circumstances (Budhwar, 2000). 2.2. Assess the advantages and the disadvantages of both on job and off job training methods used in an organization. TESCO conducts various training events for their employees for bringing the changes in their working areas. Managers give proper coaching to their team for making their career. The on job and the off job training methods are- 2.3. Use a systematic approach to plan training and development for five of your staff working at various levels in the organization outlined in the shaping your future. A training system organizes by the company where management plays a participative role along with their employees. They recognize the employee’s problems and provide them the various solutions. The solution is first assess and then implemented. Training Method: The top management will collect own conclusions. All employees called for participating in the problem solving session. Time allotted and discussion held among the employees. All employees provide the different solutions to the particular problem as per their own thinking skills (Farquharson and Baum , 2002). The management will evaluate their solutions and make judgment. Both managers and employees participate equally in bringing the change in the environment of the TESCO and for making the best corrections. (Source: Own) Task 3 3.1 3.2. Using suitable techniques prepare and carry out a training event in an organization outlined in the â€Å"shaping your future† section, identifying the following: Who should evaluate the training? The people at managerial level and the management arranges the training events foe their employees for evaluating their skills and their working effectiveness. What should be evaluated? Skills, working behavior of the employees evaluate by the management and then the management gets aware about their needs for the training. When should evaluation take place? Evaluation of the employees done by the management should takes place at regular interval in various forms. It is done by judging the job operational activities performs by the employees and helps them in concluding their behavior and knowledge that shows that whether they require any training or not (Walker James, 2001). Why do we need an evaluation? It shows the responsibility of the employees those are taking the training and assess their skills and the knowledge that reflects their improvement area. 3.3. As the company director, explain what are the various models of evaluation that could be used to review the success of the evaluation methods. The various models use for evaluation that helps in reviewing the success of the evaluation method are- Kirk Patric model, CITO model, ROI model. These models evaluates the impact of the training so that it may improve in the future if requires. The four levels involves in the Kirk Patric model are Reaction, Learning, Behavior and Results. At the time of training operation, managers give the problems to the employees and observe the activities involves in such circumstances. Reaction shows by the trainees (Redman and Wilkinson, 2001). It clears that how well they have attain the training and useful for them. Learning measures reveals what employees as trainees have learnt from the training events and that impact on their behavior. Various outcomes of the business operations show the results of the training. It shows that whether the training events are beneficial for the trainees or not. Task4 4.1. Explain how the UK government has encouraged training, development and lifelong learning over the past years in the NEET sector. The United Kingdom’s government plays an important role in providing the training to the human resources of both the public and the private sectors. As the biggest retail grocery stores, TESCO contributes to the economy of the UK at its maximum. The development of the skills and the efficiency of the employees devote more in the economy of the country (Moon, 1999). The government arranges the various programs for the employees for their self-lifelong learning process. 4.2. Explain how the development of the competency movement has impact on the public and the private sectors of the country. The competency movement leaves the impact on both the public and the private sectors of the country. It compels the other company and considers their job operations of their own. Both the sectors involves equally in increasing the economy of the country. Nobody wants the environment of the competition that slows down their pace towards the success (Liao, 2005). It evaluates the company TESCO and suggest it various measures in the form of training programs to improve the performance. Audit of the company plays the major role here in assessing the business operations of the company. The competent movement maintains the friendly environment to encourage workers for their highest sincerity. Competitive circumstances give more opportunities to the companies to learn more from their personal experiences. 4.3. Analyze how contemporary training initiatives introduced in the UK government has contributed to the HRD policy of the organization identified in the shaping your future? Training programs arranges by the organization TESCO itself for its employees brings the new change for the company and devotes the major portion in enhancing the economy of the country. It improves the working surroundings of the TESCO Plc that moves towards the development. The company can easily face the competitive environment. An acceptance of the contemporary initiatives of training are relate with the decision making as per the structure of the company (Montagu ,1999). Conclusion The success of the training programs does not depend on the levy of the employees but it arranges for analyzing their abilities employed in the company. TESCO is the retail distributor/ merchandiser in the UK performing all its operations in the wide market of the country. Their main strength is the personnel soul presumes the goals of the company at the high rate than never before. They helps in analyzing the environment provide to the consumers by the employees. Various styles are opt by the employees in handling different problems arouse in an organization and the skills of the employees are improve by these training events only. It makes the employees capable enough to face every type of problem and solve them effectively on the base of their improved skills. As a result, the company enhances their business, earns more revenues and helps in enhancing the economy of the United Kingdom. References Argyris .C and Schon. D ,1997. â€Å"Organizational Learning: a theory in action perspective†. New York: Addison-Wesley. Budhwar. P, 2000. â€Å"Evaluating levels of strategic integration and devolvement of human resource management in the UK† , Personnel Review. Vol. 29 Issue 2. pp.141-157 Doorewaard. H and Benschop .Y, 2003. â€Å"HRM and organizational change: an emotional endeavor†. Journal of Organizational Change Management. Vol. 16 Issue 3. pp.272- 286 Farquharson. L and Baum .T, 2002. â€Å"Enacting organisational change programmes: a centre stage role for HRM?†. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. Vol. 14 Issue 5. pp.243-250 Liao. Y, 2005. â€Å"Business strategy and performance: the role of human resource management control†, Personnel Review, Vol. 34 Issue 3. pp.294-309. Montagu. A ,1999. â€Å"Race and IQ† (Expanded Edition). New York. Oxford University Press. Moon. J, 1999. â€Å"Reflection in Learning and Professional Development†: theory and practice. London. Kogan Page 0-7494-2864-3. Redman. T and Wilkinson. A, 2001. â€Å"Contemporary Human Resource Management – Text and Cases†. Prentice Hall. Walker, James. W, 2001. â€Å"Perspectives; Emerging Trends and issues in Human Resource Development and Implementation†. Human Resource Planning. March 13. IGNOU, School of Management.

Moral Force Protesting :: essays research papers

Moral Force Protesting Moral force protest has a greater chance to succeed that physical force protest. Discuss in relation to our contemporary world. In the modern world today, there is an immense diversity of global issues which are constantly being dealt with. Moral force protest as well as physical force protest are used, in hope of achieving a purpose and proving a point. For both of these acts of protest, there must be a substantial amount of facts and evidences backing it up. Both protests, no matter how it's done, are in some way seeking for the support of the ‘leaders', most of the time, the ‘leaders' being the government. Moral force protest involves logical convincing speeches which are fighting for a cause within the boundaries of law. It's possible to legally get enough support for a cause and eventually win by never once using any sort of violence. In some cases, hunger strikes by the ‘victims' are also done. Aside from well constructed speeches and hunger strikes, the refusal to obey certain laws and the passive resistance, that is, resisting to incoming violence usually from the government, are other ways to morally protest without any physical violence. Sometimes due to the refusal to abide to certain laws the supporters may find abusive, the moral force protest supporters might find themselves confronting the law, and perhaps even acting illegally. In recent years, certain countries which hadn't previously given women the right to vote changed their decision by receiving strong moral force protest; this right was gained, and nowadays in those countries women possess the right to vote. Physical force wasn't in any way used in this case. The opposing way to support some strong cause can be through physical force protests. This involves violent protests which may harm people purposely. Destructive attitude from the people supporting a cause by using physical force is indeed very common. In most cases violence is used in hope of getting attention and media publicity. Physical force protest, has a very distinctive difference from moral force protest; one of the most important ones being that, by violence, these supporters are terrorising the general public, and trying to get the government to recognise their terrorism, and give in. Moral force protest is not even remotely linked with terrorism. Not in any way, do the supporters practising moral force protest adapt to terrorism like do these physical force supporters. By terrorising the general public and the government itself, these supporters think they'll create such an intolerable situation that the government will give in to their extreme and sometimes unnecessary violence.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Essay --

Joshua Coatsworth Dr. Renshaw IL 2928 February 14, 2014 Forest Grove School District vs. T.A. (2009) Background T.A. (protected as a minor) attended Forest Grove School District in Oregon, from kindergarten through his junior year in high school. During his junior year he was removed by his family and was enrolled at Mount Bachelor Academy. The family believed that the majority of his problems involved learning deficits and an inability to focus. They helped him complete the majority of his schoolwork due to difficulty with work and the inability to focus in class. During his public schooling he was only evaluated for a learning disability even though the school suspected that he had ADHD. The district concluded that T.A. was not eligible for services because he did not have a learning disability under IDEA. Although they suspected he had ADHD and may have qualified for services under Section 504, they never pursued it. T.A’s mother contacted school officials many times insisting that her son was having difficulties in school. They said that further testing would be useless as they felt it would not reveal anything that he was not already evaluated for. The district proceeded by offering no additional assistance. He soon fell further behind and experimented with drug use. T.A’s parents hired a private psychologist who later diagnosed T.A. with depression, ADHD, drug abuse, and a learning disability in mathematics. At this point, his parents removed him from Forest Grove School District and enrolled him at Mount Bachelor Academy, which focused on students with disabilities. T.A’s parents obtained legal representation, which under IDEA requested a hearing to demand that, the school district follow-up with an evaluatio... ...e school district. The support for reimbursement was present but differential review barred them from receiving reimbursement. Works Cited "Forest Grove School District vs. TA." The Oyez Project at IIT Chicago-Kent College of Law. N.p.. Web. 2 Mar 2014. . "Forest Grove School District vs. TA." Cornell University of Law. N.p.. Web. 2 Mar 2014. . Wrights, Peter. "Supreme Court Issues Pro-Child Decision in Forest Grove School District v. T.A. by Peter Wright, Esq. and Pamela Wright, MA, MSW ." Wrightslaw. N.p., 02 06 2011. Web. 2 Mar 2014. . Zirkel, Perry. "Tuition Reimbursement for Special Education Students." Future of Children. N.p.. Web. 2 Mar 2014. .

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Dulce et decorum est Essay -- English Literature

Dulce et decorum est is a well known battlefield poem written by Wilfred Owen. Critical Analysis Dulce et decorum est is a well known battlefield poem written by Wilfred Owen. It has been written in the first person and the present tense to make the reader feel as if they are actually there. It is in three clear sections, which are eight-line stanzas, rhyming ABABCDCD. It has an extra four lines in the last stanza to incorporate the main message of the poem. It uses many similes and metaphors, which add drama and make it more effective. The first stanza creates the impression of the men being tired and wounded. It describes many afflictions which are normally associated with old age, it is as though the war has aged them prematurely for example, they are now 'knock-kneed' and 'bent double' . It is about the men's journey to a distant rest place away from the battlefield 'til on haunting flares we turned our backs'. 'Cursed through sludge' tells the audience that the conditions are awful and that the language being used to drive them forwards is harsh. The poem...

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Essay on planning,preparing administering test Essay

Tests are formal assessment instruments that are used to judge student cognitive ability in an academic discipline as well as to gather information about students’ psychomotor performance. Tests usually consist of series of questions, statements, or tasks that are administered to a student or group of students. In order to develop a good assessment it requires proper planning, preparation and finally administration of the test. The development of a test that accurately measures student achievement requires careful planning. Planning for tests should start with an examination of student outcomes identified in the instructional objectives. An objective is a communication device that specifies the knowledge, skills, and attitude expected of students at the end of a lesson. Objectives also include 3 components- Conditions: identify what is available to students (resource material, circumstances etc.) .Performance: specify the desired measurable and observable student outcome (what the student will be able to do).Criteria: specify standards or proficiency for satisfactory performance. Develop test items-Test items are classified as objective or subjective. Objective test items (true or false, multiple –choice, matching, and completion) are easy to write and score and can sample large amount of content; however, they are limited to facts, encourage guessing and fail to measure higher levels of cognitive learning. Subjective test items allow students to express their thoughts and require demonstration of mastery of instructional objectives. Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it was intended to measure. Reliability provides an estimate of consistency of test results. All tests must be valid and reliable to accurately measure student achievement. Everything from student illness to testing environment can affect test validity and reliability. Planning test items-Test items should be assembled by type and increasing difficulty. Test items should also be checked for inconsistencies and follow a parallel format. Experienced test developers read the test for understanding and clarity prior to administration. Clear and concise test directions must be developed so students understand how, where, and when to provide responses. Administer Test-prior to administration, teachers should also consider the physical setting of the testing environment. Finally, teachers should also consider the psychological factors like anxiety and test pressure that affect students by explaining the reason for the test and adequately  preparing students for the test. Few points a teacher needs to keep in mind before administering test are-provide students with practice test items, indicate to students that you expect them to succeed on the test and that you are available to help them. Lastly discuss the parameters of the test. The entire procedure if followed by teachers and explained to students ahead in time, it is very much likely that the students will experience success. Thus, assessment should be an effort to move education forward and an exceptional tool that would give student an advantage in the classroom.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Current Events in the Philippines and How it Affects Good Governance

There are several current issues in the Philippines, let’s just say in economic, political and government conditions, education, environment,health, socials and many more. Every day, we watch on television, we hear from radios, read from newspapers and in the internet the continuous news of corruption of some politicians is the most trending issue.The scandalous pork barrel scam is history in the making. It is the biggest problem now a days in the government, imagine how many senators, congressmen and government agencies are being involved and a lot of budget are being wasted because of these fake NGOS and this is the example of a perfect crime.The second trending issue is on the environment, those fortuitous event like the long list calamities that hit the country, specificallythe earthquake in bohol and the super typhoon haiyan/ Yolanda, these unprecedented calamities has been a great problem to us and for our political leaders but still with the help of outside countries an d with fast relief operations of the government our country is hoping to rise from these terrible events. But ofcourse some of our political leaders again and their operations had become harsh and some mal practices are present.In the midst of our difficulties and despair, some politicians are taking advantage of the situation. We taxpayers pay for the salaries of these lawmakers to make our country the best place to live. To help them perform their job well, but what happened?Instead of performing their jobs and fulfill their function in uplifting the lives of Filipinos many of them used their power, authority, time and effort for sustaining their private interest so it may result in graft and corruption practices and anomalies in the government.Poor become poorer and most of politicians are becoming busy increasing their assets. Now, there is really a good governance in the phillipines? Those sceneraio are the perfect examples that may greatly affect good governance, its because p ublic office is a public trust.Public officers and employees must at all times be accountable to the people, serve them with utmost responsibility, integrity,loyalty, and efficiency, act with patriotism and justice and lead modest lives.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Avon Products Essay

After five straights years of ten percent plus growth and twenty-five percent operating profit growth under CEO Andrea Jung, the company suddenly began losing profits. One of the main reasons of this lost was the fast growth of Avon that couldn’t be supported by its employees. As with many growing organizations the structure, people and processes that were right for a $5 billion company were not necessarily a good fit for a ten billion dollar company (Goldsmith & Carter, 2010, p. 2). There were weaknesses that hurt the effectiveness of the employees at the talent management practices. Decisions on talent movement, promotions, and other key talent activities were often influenced as much by individual knowledge and emotion as by objective facts. Neither managers nor Associates have any idea about how the talent practices work. Even the HR department wasn’t sufficient to answer basic questions that might be asked by managers like â€Å"What will happen to me if I don’t do this? † (Goldsmith & Carter, 2010). Thus, changing at the talent management practices was a necessity for the company in order to increase the operation profits. The change theory typified in Avon Products case study is the 360 degree assessment process along with performance management and succession planning this would deliver the expected results if they were consistently and flawlessly executed. They used this method to build talent practices that were easy to implement. The proposed talent management model was integrated business and human resources strategy, talent management processes, organizational culture, provides a systemic approach, and results in having talented leaders and individuals available to accomplish the mission of the organization. One of the most simple and powerful changes was to bring transparency to every talent practice. Avon’s 360 degree assessment process was hardly a model of transparency when the turnaround began. The new team leader requested copies of each VP’s 360 degree assessment due to understand common behavioral strengths and weaknesses. A new, much simpler 360 was designed and implemented that explicitly stated that proper managerial and leadership behaviors were critical for a leader’s success at Avon. Helping to make the transition to transparency easier, the new 360 assessments and report differed from typical tools that rate the participants on proficiency in various areas. The type of evaluation information that was collected was from complex to simple, from egalitarian to differentiated, from episodic to disciplined, from meaningless to consequential, from opaque to transparent, from emotional to factual and from meaningless to consequential. Leaders know what is required to be successful, how to measure the situation, how HR and management can assist them, and the consequences of higher and lower performance. They know their performance rating, their potential ratings and how they can change each of those. They actively differentiated levels of Avon talent and provided each level with the appropriate experience. Their highest potential leaders understand how management feels about them, and they see a commensurate investment. Their lower performing leaders get the attention they need (Silzer & Dowell, 2010). Managers do the right thing for their associates both because the barriers have been lower than what they previously built and because management helped them with value added tools and information. Processes began to happen on schedule and consistently around the world. Talent decisions are made with an additional layer of qualitative and quantitative information drawn from across many different leader experiences. Leaders know that they must build talent the Avon way for both their short and long term success. When the turnaround began, no global process for understanding or acting on associate engagement issues existed. Select regions or department made efforts of varying effectiveness, but there was no integrated focus on consistent measurement and improvement of engagement (Silzer & Dowell 2010). In designing the engagement process, management applied the same three questions: the business benefit, the simple path, to adding additional value. Management accepted the substantial research that showed a correlation, and some causation between increasing engagement and increasing various business metrics. There were two goals established around simplicity. One goal was to understand as much of what drove engagement as possible, while asking the least number of questions. The second goals were to write the questions as simple as possible, so that if managers needed to improve the score on a question, their options for action would be relatively obvious. Management was confident that if managers took the right actions to improve their engagement results, not only would the next year’s scores increase, but the business would benefit from the incremental improvement. The challenge was to determine and imply communicate to the managers what the right actions were. Management with the assistance of a research team developed a statistical equation model that would become the engine to produce the answers. The statistical equation model allowed them to understand the power of each engagement dimension, for example, immediate manager, empowerment, senior management, to increase engagement, and to express that power in an easy to understand statement (Goldsmith & Carter, 2010). Avon’s mission is focused on six core aspirations the company continually strives to achieve. They are leader in global beauty, building a unique portfolio of beauty and related brands, striving to surpass competitors in quality, innovation, and value, and elevating Avon’s image to become the world’s trusted beauty company. Empower their employees to achieve economic independence by offering a superior earning opportunity as well as recognition, service and support, making it easy and rewarding to be affiliated with Avon. Deliver superior returns to shareholders by pursuing new growth opportunities while maintaining a commitment to be a responsible, ethical company and a global corporate citizen that is held as a model of success (Avon Products Inc. , 2012). Avon Products Inc. is the world largest direct seller right now. The changes in 2006 set the stage for renewed growth by enabling them to be faster and nimbler, but since then the business has grown significantly and become increasingly complex.